Thursday, September 3, 2020

Marketing Segmentation Essay

Showcasing Segmentation Joined Health Care MKT/571 Teacher Knabe August 26, 2013 Showcasing Segmentation: United Health Care An essential piece of a business’s showcase procedure is advertise division. Market Segmentation is that procedure of separating an enormous market into littler gatherings of shoppers with the goal that they can advertise all the more proficiently. Regardless of whether you are a purchaser arranged organization or a business situated organization you should utilize Market division. Socioeconomics As a medical coverage supplier our market division depends on exploration and scholarly writing. In the medicinal services industry we spread each constituent served by our association. Out objective markets are: Employers Individuals business gathering, individual, Medicare, and Medicaid Network Physicians Agents In spite of the fact that the direction of every investigation contrasts the all have a similar essential standards. Experience has prompted the conviction that the correct associations between the theoretical and investigative ways to deal with infer fragments and usage techniques that customers has discovered valuable for improve showcasing proficiency and viability. We have a similar general way to deal with promoting as most medicinal services insurance agencies. We simply include our own thoughts and put an extraordinary contort on the introduction of our item when it goes to our showcasing methodology. Our essential market portion is our individuals. The explanation being that they are the biggest market fragment of the four gatherings. They can be separated into four gatherings also. On the off chance that we offer market our items in a manner that is speaking to the part not exclusively hold current individuals however we likewise draw in new individuals. The procedure of market division must be led with the capacity of an association to address the subsequent portions. Geographic We have a genuinely huge geographic region, with the vast majority of our individuals being situated in the United States of America. We began in the province of California so the greater part of part or in the Western United states. We have likewise relocated to different areas of the US. We as of now have an overwhelming populace in southern states, for example, Texas, Florida, and Georgia. We additionally have a substantial populace in along the Eastern Seaboard and Northern states, for example, Wisconsin. The manner in which we advertise our item in those territories is through mailers, magazine promotions, TV promotions and at some point radio. Psychographics Our individuals originate from varying backgrounds. When creating plans we expect to tailor them to the various kinds of part we serve. A considerable lot of our individuals are voyagers so we offer an advantage that covers them from state to state and globally also. This advantage is alluring to the individuals with dynamic ways of life. We additionally serve a high old populace. We will in general offer advantages that would be engaging the maturing populace that numerous other protection plans still can't seem to offer. In 2011 we started offering a portable hearing assistant advantage to our part. As of now no other organization is offering this advantage, we have enlisted numerous new individuals along these lines. Portable amplifiers are pricey and the way that we offer them at a limited rate keeps our part and attracts new individuals to us. We likewise offer a rec center participation that takes into account senior residents, this is will in general attract individuals that like to remain fit and it empowers them to do it at their own pace. We likewise offer items that are moderate to people that don’t have protection offered to them by their managers. Conduct We offer designs for all scopes of wages. Individuals with higher earnings will in general buy the plans that offer the top notch benefits. Those with lower earnings will in general buy plans with that meets the essential needs just to have some inclusion. Our Medicaid individuals will in general have the essential needs met in light of the fact that it is fundamentally a state supported program. When structuring plans and picking benefits, we need to consider the objective market and client conduct. We configuration plans for individuals that go to the specialists as often as possible just as for individuals that just go to the specialist for precaution care as it were. When structuring these plans we additionally need to make cost offering courses of action to manager and talk about premiums being that they will likewise be adding to the expense of the protection for their representatives. Past practices, for example, history of exchanging, current wellbeing plan and convey, curren t advantage structure, month to month premium and cost imparting course of action to workers. Item Positioning Rivalry exists in pretty much every market, particularly in niche’ markets. It’s our business to situate our items and administrations for fit every specific portion. Item positions might be characterized by correspondence, for example, publicizing as opposed to the contrasts between the items. The goal is to extend existing items and persistently alter them to our consistently evolving segment. While doing so we ensure we survey certain models for every single possible portion: beneficial size-benefit potential availability section must be open through notice and other special strategies self-control item propelled ought not take request from different items offered advertising blend reaction fragment ought to be receptive to showcasing and advancement endeavors If these measures are met there is an extraordinary possibility of have an effective and productive business. References Driving Consumer Insight with the market Segmentation Bakken, David G. Instances of Marketing Segmentation Kolemuller, Neil Variable Selection for Health Insurance Market Segmentation

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Analysis of the Advertising Industry in 2015 Sample for Students

Question: Do Five Forces Analysis of the Advertising Industry in 2015. Answer: Watchmen Analysis Dangers of new passage The organizations that work on a full-time premise has more interest in the market.The utilization of web is extremely high in the present market. Scientists have demonstrated that an individual goes through around 13 hours surfing in the internet.Hiring representatives that are gifted and can work productively is low as for computerized promoting. Dealing intensity of providers A lot of providers are available, yet some have persuasive force for which they charge high pricesBidding on an ongoing premise will expand the interest on the gateways Bartering intensity of purchasers They are the customers of the offices The offices can change the battle designs as indicated by the customers Customers attempt to keep up long haul relations with the offices Dangers of substitutes Replacement is high for instance print media, Radio and TV Promoting through radio expanded in 2015 Contention by existing contenders The customary organizations are moving towards computerized publicizing A few organizations are notable due to creative battles (McAlister et al. 2016) The qualities that be seen from the examination are that there are low dangers with respect to the new sections in the promoting business. The dealing intensity of the providers is high, yet of that of the purchaser is medium. In any case, it can increment in the coming years due to new contestants in the business. The appeal in the publicizing business is physical in nature for the most part. The publicizing offices have comprehended that excellence sells in the cutting edge world, which has driven them to support their brands through big name, celebrated spokespersons and different models (Rosengren and Bondesson 2014). References McAlister, L., Srinivasan, R., Jindal, N. what's more, Cannella, A.A., 2016. Publicizing adequacy: The directing impact of firm strategy.Journal of Marketing Research,53(2), pp.207-224. Rosengren, S. what's more, Bondesson, N., 2014. Customer publicizing as a sign of business attractiveness.International Journal of Advertising,33(2), pp.253-269.

Cultural Brief of Taiwan

Presentation POLITICAL, LEGAL, AND TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIROMENT HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS Geert Hofstede is a Dutch analyst who distinguished five elements of culture to help see how and why individuals from different societies carry on the manner in which they do. The five Hofstede’s social measurements are power separation, vulnerability evasion, independence, manliness versus gentility, and time direction. Taiwan has a powerful separation implying that individuals aimlessly comply with the sets of their bosses, and severe compliance is found. Taiwan positioned high in vulnerability evasion implying that the individuals don't care for vulnerability and will in general have a significant requirement for security and a solid confidence in specialists. In independence Taiwan positioned as a low individualistic nation implying that individuals take care of themselves and their close relatives. With respect to manliness Taiwan positioned as a high manliness nation implying that they place incredible significance on profit, acknowledgment, headway, and challenge. In this kind of culture individuals are urge to be chiefs, and have elite levels. On the last measurement Taiwan positioned high in long haul direction implying that they center more around long range objectives. TROMPENAAR’S DIMENSIONS Although Hofstede’s measurements are the most perceive social measurement a later research is picking up consideration. This examination was made over a period on ten years by another Dutch analyst Fons Trompenaar. Trompenaar’s measurements are Universalism versus Particularism, Individualism versus Communitarianism, Neutral versus Passionate, Specific versus Diffuse, Achievement versus Attribution, Sequential versus Simultaneous, and Internal versus Outer. GLOBE DIMENSIONS The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) inquire about task is another examination to gauge social distinction. This exploration is a broad investigation that coordinates past examination. Nations were chosen cautiously so every major geographic on the planet was spoken to. This undertaking or research is viewed as one of the most refined examinations since it was made by a multicultural group of scientists that had and expansive information and involvement with those fields. The GLOBE task can be use to anticipate the most fitting, compelling, and appropriate authoritative and pioneer rehearses inside a culture. The GLOBE is a more broad research and incorporates a larger number of measurements than Hofstede’s and Trompenaars’s examine. The GLOBE venture recognized nine social measurements Uncertainty evasion, Power separation, Collectivism I, Collectivism II, Gender populism, Assertiveness, Future direction, Performance direction, and Humane direction. Social NORMS, VALUES, AND BELIEFS Taiwan’s populace is for the most part Han Chinese and is isolated into three gatherings dependent on their language: Taiwanese, Hakka, and Mandarin. The official language of Taiwan is Mandarin Chinese, however Min-nan vernacular is additionally broadly spoken. English is the most well known unknown dialect which makes it part of their normal school educational program. A great many people in Taiwan have customary qualities dependent on Confucian morals, however industrialization is making them change their qualities. Some conventional qualities, for example, devotion towards guardians, precursor love, and accentuation on training and work stay solid. Taiwanese qualities depend on Confucianism which portrays the situation of the person in the public arena. This arrangement of practices and morals put accentuation on the commitment of individuals towards each other dependent on their relationship, and stresses obligation, faithfulness, respect, regard for age and earnestness. There are five characterizations of relationship: ruler and subject, a couple, guardians and kids, siblings and sisters, and companion and companion. Taiwan’s culture is aggregate which implies they are happy to stifle their own affections to benefit the gathering. Taiwanese have a significant idea of the face called â€Å"Mien-Tzu†. They accept the face mirrors a person’s notoriety, nobility, and renown. This idea isn't just applied to people yet in addition to organizations. â€Å"Guanxi† is another term identified with the associations and kinds of connections Taiwanese use to direct business. Organizations are led among companions, companions of companions, family, and individuals of your own level or higher sculptures. This idea is accepted to open entryways, smooth issues, and open more associations. Taiwan’s religion depends on the â€Å"three teachings†; Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. Every religion has its own sanctuaries, cleric, and sacrosanct writings, however the vast majority practice a mix of the â€Å"three teachings† alluded to as mainstream or society religion. Family is significant in the Taiwanese culture and one thing that unites family consistently is food. Supper is the most significant feast of the day since it fortifies family connections. The trading of food implies equity and individuals of higher positions are never welcomed to eat at one’s home. Fish the most loved food, and food is for the most part cooked in soups, stews, and profound fry. Taiwan is renowned for its tea and it tends to be found in pretty much every side of Taiwan. Tea is the most popular beverage since it is viewed as invigorating, helpful for discussion, and valuable to wellbeing. Assumptions about DRESS APPOINTMENTS Taiwanese are prompt and they hope to be consistently on schedule for an arrangement. They are simple in planning arrangements and the most ideal approach to set an arrangement is by phone or email. Most firms have business hours from 9AM to 5:30PM Monday to Friday, so get in touch with them between those occasions in the event that you need to be reached in a convenient way. Reliability is significant however they comprehend and regard when late, yet in the event that past notification is given. Occasions are a difficult time to set arrangements since they don't work uncommonly during the special seasons of Chinese New Year, Tuan-Wu (or Dragon Boat Festival) and Mid-Autumn occasion, subsequently; it is extremely difficult to take a few to get back some composure of anybody during this season. BUSINESS ENTERTAINING Taiwanese compensation exceptionally near business engaging in light of the fact that they think of it as basic in making an effective business relationship. Business engaging ought to never be viewed as an exercise in futility since Taiwanese give exceptionally close consideration and commit a great deal of time to this action. The most mainstream sort of business engaging is eating and drinking a lot of liquor until late. During supper try not to discuss business except if the host brings it up. This time ought to be use to become familiar with Taiwan’s individuals, culture, and the host intrigue. Taiwanese are food sweethearts so expect around twenty dishes during supper. The convention is that the host serves the visitor in their plates a little food, yet they are allowed to take more food. It is suggested that you leave a smidgen of food in your plate when done on the grounds that leaving your plate void means that you are as yet eager. After the extraordinary supper tea is serve which means that the occasion is done, and it is amiable on the off chance that you leave in the wake of completing the tea regardless of whether the host welcomes you to remain. BUSINESS CARDS Taiwanese individuals are inviting and respectful, and social relations are significant. They trust in making solid connections in light of the fact that their conviction is that one can't do only anything without assistance from others. The utilization of business cards is utilized at the primary gathering. Business cards are trade and it is viewed as a simple method to conquer introductory modesty and begin shaping an association. The trading of business cards likewise speaks to or exhibits a person’s name and notoriety. TITLES AND FORMS OF ADDRESS Title and status of power are significant in Taiwanese culture. When meeting an individual just because it is significant that you address the individual by their scholarly, expert, or honorific title and their family name. Individuals give exceptionally close consideration to status of power, for example, age, instruction, occupation, and sexual orientation. Age is one of the components paid attention to in light of the fact that they hope to show the best regard. This is an issue at whatever point a more youthful exile comes to oversee more seasoned individuals. It is hard for them to acknowledge the way that a more youthful individual oversees them. Taiwanese customarily have three names. The family name or last name, and two individual names. An intriguing thing about their own names is that their names ordinarily have some huge significance. Getting some information about the importance of their names is a decent route for breaking the ice. Welcome Greeting in Taiwan are likewise significant and they have an alternate sorts of welcome contingent upon the individual being welcomed when welcoming somebody in Taiwan the most seasoned individual in the gathering is welcomed first. Taiwanese utilize a handshake as the most well-known sort of welcome with outsiders. In the Chinese culture they have a sign that speaks to regard, looking towards the ground. Taiwanese don't expect for outsiders to welcome a similar way since they realize we have diverse welcome styles, so to take no chances a strong handshake and a comforting grin is the best decision. Signals Everywhere on the planet regardless of what language you talk individuals or societies consistently have motions that have a huge importance. In Taiwan there are four sorts of signals: welcoming motions, contacting motions, coaxing motions, and nonverbal motions. We will begin first with the welcome motions, handshaking has gotten well known and its spreading quickly, yet a bow is the most conventional type of welcome. Embracing and kissing when welcome is exceptionally uncommon and unprecedented. An extraordinary motion for seniors is to cover your left clench hand with your correct hand, or set up your hands and carry them to your heart. Contacting motions are not very invited in Taiwan they are not a touch arranged society. Open indications of fondness are uncommon, yet it�

Friday, August 21, 2020

Perceptions of Reading for Pleasure in Boys Methodology

View of Reading for Pleasure in Boys Methodology Philosophy. Configuration approach To address the test of young men view of perusing for delight and alluding to applicable writing, I chose to move toward the exploration utilizing triangulation so interrogation of discoveries could be accomplished inside a generally short space of time. A blended technique examine approach was utilized to address my exploration question so that in completing a survey, follow up meetings and perceptions could happen to answer further fundamental causes and questions. Cresswell at al. (1993) depicts the blended strategy approach as gathering, breaking down and coordinating both subjective and quantitative information through a solitary or numerous examinations. In doing this Kettley (2012) composes that it takes into consideration the investigation of the two examples and reasons for conduct which can uplift the unwavering quality of results. In any case, Laws (2003) challenges this view, expressing that an assortment diverse research points of view may not coordinate flawlessly as th ere could be complexity and strife between discoveries. Laws (2003) suggests that a specialist ought to basically dissect any differentiations in discoveries so to make significance from them. What specialists have utilized it-for what reason is it acceptable Triangulation-what is it (ive utilized this technique however give some understanding) Testing 300 words Morse and Niehaus (2009) see that testing techniques are planned to augment the proficiency and legitimacy of research results. This examination included utilizing an intentional example, a procedure which is generally utilized with the goal that people or gatherings of members are particularly learned or experienced in ones line of request (Palinkas et al., 2013). For this exploration, multi year three classes both from free schools were picked to investigate the test of young men perusing for delight. My fundamental enthusiasm for this examination was to perceive how view of perusing contrasted between classes which had individuals that were thought to peruse more for joy, (for example, in a blended setting) in contrast with a class where the class was all young men and were generalized to be unengaged to peruse in their available time. These schools were picked as the quantity of young men in every year bunch were comparative and were of complexity as far as single sex or blended. The two schools were from a similar area of Oxfordshire, and all individuals from staff in every year bunch were female. The two gatherings of understudies were, albeit decided on school foundation type, not founded on foreordained perspectives on perusing for delight. Patton (2002) features that the utilization of an intentional example is to catch significant varieties through the examination of results as opposed to recognize a typical center. Because of the absence of single sex grade schools, a private blended school was picked as the complexity so that as far as sorts of schools these were the equivalent. If I somehow happened to do this examination once more, I would include increasingly single sex and blended schools in my exploration with the goal that my outcomes were not summed up Perception Observational information is an appealing type of information assortment as it permits the analyst to assemble proof from genuine circumstances (Cohen et al., 2000). Toward the start of every week in the schools, I watched the youngsters in their learning condition, focusing particularly on the day by day schedule and how English was instructed. I decided to utilize perceptions as one of my examination techniques as it permits you direct access to social connections which can be of center to the exploration intrigue (Simpson and Tuson, 1995) while additionally seeing and breaking down the physical, human, interactional and program setting (Cohen at al., 2000). Utilizing a semi-organized perception approach permitted me to inundate myself in the circumstance so I could see how perusing for joy was advanced inside the study hall and how kids responded to perusing in the study hall condition. As I was contrasting two distinctive year bunches from various schools, utilizing the unstructu red methodology took into account components of the observational circumstance represent themselves, as opposed to setting up a perception plan (Cohen et al., 2000). Thomas (2009) states that albeit an unstructured perception might be simpler in contrast with organized, it includes a lot of preliminary work so one can turn out to be a piece of the circumstance and requires affectability, thought and promise to break down the discoveries genuinely. Punch (1998) features different challenges expressing that as far as recording information, the adaptable idea of observational strategies, the chronicle of information can conceivably become adaptable too. To beat this potential obstruction, essentially noted qualities from every class as far as the physical condition, the connections to education in exercises, childrens conduct lastly educators procedures. Every observational technique have preferences and disservices, anyway with cautious planning, they can be incredible assets in incre asing important research proof. Survey A survey was chosen to be utilized to discover the childrens perspectives on perusing for delight, also discovering what different diversions they like to do in their available time and how regularly they occupied with perusing for joy in their spare time. Dark (2004) suggests that surveys are utilized when working with a huge crowd where normalized questions are required. Utilizing polls as an examination technique permits a diagnostic methodology which can be utilized to investigate connections between factors. Gillham (2000) features that there are a couple of worthwhile parts of a surveys which has prompted it being a well known decision of research strategy. A portion of these variables incorporate ease, snappy information recovery and the way that polls can be sent to a huge size of individuals in brief period. Gillham (2000) likewise features that namelessness can be guaranteed while utilizing a poll anyway he additionally calls attention to that from a more minor perspective, scientists might know about attributes of respondents and in this manner ready to recognize answers dependent on a character profile. In the same way as other research strategies, surveys have their downsides. Gillham (2000) prompts that if a survey is to be characteristically propelling for members, the length should run somewhere in the range of four and six pages. Robson (2011) further features that the inspiration of a member could influence the information prompting a less legitimate outcome. To defeat these boundaries, I picked 12 inquiries, a considerable lot of which were shut inquiries which required small reasoning time. Two open inquiries were utilized to discover their view point on why they appreciated or loathed perusing, and what might inspire them to peruse more for delight. Because of the obscurity of surveys, scientists can't recognize deluding or nervy answers, and if no further follow-up perceptions or meetings are included, specialists will most likely be unable to distinguish genuine portrayals. As I utilized two other research strategies close by polls, I had the option to distinguish an incr easingly legitimate portrayal of youngsters and educators perspectives in contrast with simply utilizing one technique alone. Utilizing the equivalent normalized questions which have been steered and changed if vital, it is conceivable to increase a high unwavering quality of reaction (Robson, 2011). Before the exploration occurring, I messaged the surveys to the two schools and tried the inquiries for clearness with an outside 8-year-old kid so the inquiries were clear and the jargon was age proper. Meeting I chose to utilize semi organized meetings with both the instructors of year three from the two schools and a determination of 4 young men who were regarded hesitant perusers by their educators. This was with the goal that my examination could be additionally upheld and a more profound comprehension of the two instructors and young men could be accomplished. Arksey and Knight (1999) remark that the strategy for meeting permits members to communicate their sentiments and view of their general surroundings. This further concurred by Cohen and Marion (1997) featuring that one of the major explanations behind utilizing interviews as a component of an exploration approach is to accumulate data on a people information, worth and mentality which can be utilized related to different strategies, for example, a study. These meetings were embraced after they had finished the survey, with the goal that I had the option to acquire understanding into what spurred young men to peruse in the homeroo m and at home, and what might inspire them further to peruse for joy. Despite the fact that the inquiries for every understudy was the equivalent, a semi-organized methodology was utilized so answers could be explained further and I could increase an increasingly straightforward comprehension. Utilizing semi organized meetings while looking into childrens perspectives is perfect, particularly when utilized close by youngster amicable language and meeting in places in which the kid knows about (Graham et al., 2012). Each class educator was likewise addressed on which systems they used to advance perusing for joy. As half of the educators were from the blended school, the inquiries were worded marginally contrastingly as I needed to discover how they propelled the young men. The entirety of the meetings with every understudy was recorded as opposed to making notes on what was being said. This was with the goal that I could focus on their non-verbal communication and verbal reaction simultaneously instead of focusing principally on simply verbal input. It has been accounted for that taking notes during a meeting can divert the questioner from the focal point of the discussion which can bring about lost basic data (Britten, 1995) subsequently utilizing a top notch recorder close by note taking on the members non-verbal communication and feelings can fundamentally diminish the probability of mistake or misguided judgments during information examination (Fernandez and Griffiths, 2007). As most of the meetings were with the kids, it was significant that the kids could see that I had their complete consideration, and that b

Thesis Topic or Idea free essay sample

Subsequently, instructive establishments are not urged to assist you with calculating the proposition procedure out. Dont hold up until you are done with your passing/exhaustive tests to Start considering thought for your proposal subject. Utilize your alumni courses to seek after a potential point. Delaying in choosing a point can now and then reason gridlock in your alumni profession. Without a theme, you can't continue to composing or safeguarding the proposition stage; and all the more significantly, you can't start inquiring about or composing your theory. ave gave 10 hints to assist you with creating postulation thoughts and begin advancing toward your objective of finishing your degree: 1 . Dont Panic † Keep Things in Perspective Lees face it, not very numerous individuals will peruse a bosses postulation. A postulation isn't the kind of record that arouses the overall populations curiosity fundamentally in light of its scholastic thoroughness and composing style. The point is by and large of intrigue just to the understudy, specialists in the field and the understudies guide and board of trustees individuals. We will compose a custom article test on Proposition Topic or Idea or on the other hand any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page 2.Be Organized † Maximize Your Research Efforts In request to augment your exploration endeavors, you should be sorted out and proficient in your pursuit endeavors. The more sorted out you are to start with, the additional time you should compose your proposal. Be tenacious about keeping rack of your documents in the early periods of your exploration to diminish your feelings of anxiety later on when your energy starts to wind down. In the event that you need to back track on your examination endeavors, being sorted out from the earliest starting point will help make the procedure less excruciating. 3.Choose a Subject Area First † Then a Topic for Your Thesis The more data you expend in your expansive branch of knowledge, the more examples will rise. In your coursework readings, you may see rehashed results and ends by more than one source, or realities that favor one view more than another. Focusing on these examples hould assist you with getting increasingly familiar with the significant writing just as help you to limit your core interest. Narrowing your point ought to be finished with assistance from your counsel and advisory group individuals. 4.Consider Expanding a Masters Thesis Into a Dissertation If youre moving in the direction of a PhD and you composed a Masters proposal, consider developing that subject for your paper. You as of now know about the point and a great part of the exploration is finished. This methodology can quicken your advancement towards your objective: Completion! 5. Ensure Your Thesis Topic Is Interesting It is basic that both you and your counselor are keen on your proposal opic. A few counsels are hesitant to recommend subjects in view of the verifiable duties related with managing an understudy through the procedure from start to completion.Your counselors excitement for your point will decide their readiness to peruse, backing, finance, and give opportune input and bearing to your work. 6. Pick a Solvable And Manageable Research Problem It is imperative to choose a difficult that is thin enough that you can address it or settle it in a sensible timeframe. You should choose a point that can be finished inside a two-year time span. A more extended time allotment ould permit numerous sudden and contending occasions to happen. In the event that you end up investing an over the top measure of energy seeking after and distinguishing an exploration issue, it is conceivable that the issue isn't resolvable. With a more extended time period, you likewise risk another person distinguishing and taking care of the issue before you do. Consequently, the idea of unique commitment to the field is lost and you may need to begin once again. Additionally, you risk your excitement lessening. 7. The Research Problem Must Be Worthy Of Your Time Choosing a point that is sufficiently convincing to continue further research is ritical.Employers assess potential workers dependent on the studenes capacity to complete the proposition as well as make future commitments to the field. 8. Make Your Research Topic Original-Has It Been Done Before? The essential for seeing another examination point is as educated in light of the fact that most things have been concentrated previously. Keeping steady over the present discussions in your scholarly field sets you in a place to distinguish the holes in information. In the wake of distinguishing the holes, all you have to make sense of is the thing that sorts Of data will fill these holes. 9. Sharpen Your Research Skills

Saturday, June 27, 2020

Frederick Taylors Scientific Management - Free Essay Example

Shannon Crilly13321480 Q.2 Frederick Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was for a different time and a different place. Discuss. I agree that Frederick Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ undoubtedly belonged to a different time and place. In this essay I will express why I believe this to be true. To do so, I will begin by outlining where the idea originated from, and what exactly Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ consists of. Following this I will discuss the reasons why I believe that this system was indeed for a different time and place, and I will compare it with systems that I believe to be more applicable to modern managerial work, for example Henry Mintzbergà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s views on the Managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s roles. I do however, also believe that there are aspects of Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scienti fic managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ which can be seen to operate well in managerial work today, and so I will also discuss the ways that I see this to be true. A manager is a person who is in charge of an organization or one of an organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s sub-units. They are responsible for controlling or overseeing a group of individuals, and they allocate, direct and account for resources. Their main duties are to plan, organise, lead, and control. The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum propensity for the employer, as well as the maximum propensity for each employee (Taylor, 1911). Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s analysis of management revealed that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"unscientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was the fundamental problem of the late years of the 19th century, around the time of the end of the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Long Depressionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. At this time Taylor was working as a machine-shop labourer at the Midvale Steel Company of Philadelp hia, and his studies were based on his personal observations of the organization and execution of daily work tasks here (Fulop and Linstead, 1999). He realised that maximum efficiency wasnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t being achieved by workers as employers were paying the lowest wages they could and in return the employees was doing as little work as they could (Taylor, 1911). The majority of workers believed that the fundamental interests of the workman and the management were antagonistic (Taylor, 1911). Taylor believed that the greatest obstacle to cooperation between the workman and the management was the ignorance of the management as to what the workmanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s daily endeavour actually consisted of (Taylor, 1911). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was developed on the contrary to this, where the interests of both the management and the workman needed to be viewed as one and the same à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" where prosperity for the employer cannot be achieved i n the long run unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee (Taylor, 1911). Taylor came up with a systematic approach to the study and design of work (Fulop and Linstead, 1999). There were four fundamental elements of this idea of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ outlining the new duties of the management. The first being that they develop a science for each element of a workmanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s work, where before they simply used a general rule of thumb method (Taylor, 1911). Secondly the management themselves scientifically select and train the workmen. In the past the workman appointed his own work and trained himself to the best of his capabilities (Taylor, 1911). Thirdly the management heartily cooperate with the workmen, insuring that all the work is being done in accordance with the developed principles of the science (Taylor, 1911). Fourthly and finally, that there is an essentially equal division of both work and responsibility between the workmen and the management. The management take on the work for which they are better suited, where in the past the majority of the responsibility and virtually all of the workload were thrown upon the workmen (Taylor, 1911). At the time the system of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was adopted by numerous companies in the United States, and it worked very well. Daily wages rose from 33% à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" 100 % higher than surrounding companies who were still operating under ordinary management, and average output per man per machine doubled (Taylor, 1911). As time progressed however, flaws to the system surfaced, and what seemed to be more appropriate management systems were developed. One element of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was that work activities were standardized and formalized to optimize execution of finely subdivided repetitive tasks (Fulop and Linstead, 1999), for example Henry Fordà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s assembly lin e that was developed after 1914 is an extension of this principle (Drucker, 1999). In their book, Liz Fulop and Stephen Linstead point out how this isolating and repetitive nature of work tasks was seen by the workmen and the trade unions as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the ultimate dehumanizing and alienation approach to workà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Fulop and Linstead, 1999). Workmen became dissatisfied, increasingly careless, and more frequently absent from their employment. Working in these in humane working conditions, caused many workers to suffer extensive psychological trauma and poor work life quality (Fulop and Linstead, 1999). Managers could see that demotivation from the never-ending monotony of the factory was bound to emerge in the long run (Fulop and Linstead, 1999). In todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s society employeeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s average intelligence has risen greatly, and people have become more aware of their value as human beings (Priestly, 2005). While à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific manag ementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ workers were viewed as working solely for economic reward, today people are no longer satisfied with receiving only fiscal reward for their work (Priestly, 2005). It was clear that managers needed to look for ways to make jobs more intrinsically rewarding à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" so that the actual work itself would bring a reward of significance or trial (Boddy, 2005). Most early job redesign strategies were concerned with reversing the effects the over-specified, inflexible jobs that stemmed from Scientific Management, emphasizing making jobs more satisfying and challenging (Fulop and Linstead, 1999). The 21st Century has seen significant increases in access to technology and information. This is another reason why it is difficult to apply à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ to modern organizations. Organizations today process huge amounts of input, provided by satellite link-ups and the Internet, and employees no longer work in isolated uni ts but are literally connected to the organization in its whole (Priestly, 2005). With this swift technological growth the importance of reacting quickly to developments that may affect the organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s welfare is rising, and managers realise that it is not possible for them to control every aspect of employeeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s functions, making it imperative for the employees to use their own initiative (Priestly, 2005). This flexibility that must be sustained by modern companies does not comply with Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, which required the work of every workman to be entirely planned out by the management at least one day in advance (Boddy, 2005). Lack of flexibility of workers can also be seen under à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ when workers became too highly specialized in their specific task, prohibiting their capability to adapt to new situations. Managers in the 21st centu ry require their workers exhibit flexibility as well as efficiency (Priestly, 2005). Henry Mintzberg also tackles many principles of Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ by comparing what he believes to be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"folkloreà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and what he believes to be fact about the managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s job, from his point of view in 1990. The first principle he deals with is that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the manager is a reflective, systematic plannerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Mintzberg, 1990). He countered this by explaining how instead numerous studies have shown that the manager works at an inexorable pace, and that their activities are characterized by brevity, variety and discontinuity (Mintzberg, 1990). He backs up his claim with evidence from studies of U.S. foremen and of British top and middle managers, where his beliefs, which contradict Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s, can be seen to be true in these modern work organizations. Mintzber g also opposes à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ as a whole by saying that it is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"folkloreà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ that management is a science and a profession (Mintzberg, 1990). What Mintzberg suggests to be true today is that the managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s programs, including decision making and so on, are rooted deep with their brains (Mintzberg, 1990). With organizations becoming much more complex today, the managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s job is increasingly more difficult. Managers are overburdened with obligations and are forced to overwork and do many of their task superficially (Mintzberg, 1990). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ concentrated on specialized functions of the organization, but Mintzberg saw that the characteristics required of effective managerial work are brevity, fragmentation and verbal communication (Mintzberg, 1990). As these are not what à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was primarily co ncerned with, these characteristics have in fact impeded any scientific attempts to improve the managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s job (Mintzberg, 1990). Peter Drucker had a great amount of respect for Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. In his article in the California Management Review, he declared that no matter how loudly Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s antagonists tried to proclaim their differences with him, every method during the past one hundred years that has shown any success in raising manual works productivity and real wages, has in fact been based on Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s principles (Drucker, 1999). This can been seen in à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"work enlargementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"work enrichmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"job rotationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ for example (Drucker, 1999). Despite this, Drucker did agree that in entering the 21st Century we needed to move past à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ â„ ¢. He expressed the factors which he considered to be successful in determining the knowledge-workerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s productivity. One of them being that the responsibility for knowledge worker productivity must lie with the individual knowledge workers themselves. They have to manage themselves; have autonomy (Drucker, 1999). Another being that continuous innovation must to be part of the work, and a third is that productivity of the knowledge worker does not solely depend on quantity; quality is at least equally as important (Drucker, 1999). Each of these are almost the complete opposite of the factors emphasized by Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Druckerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s knowledge worker system has proved to work effectively in the modern workplace, and an example of where its success can be seen is with a group of orthopaedic surgeons in a Mid-western city in the United States (Drucker, 1999). One of the principles of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ that I previously mentioned that it was heavily oriented to turning everything work-related into quantifiable dimensions, rather than relying on the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"rule of thumbà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ method (Ritzer, 1983). Fordismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s roots are based on Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s management model (Priestly, 2005). I will use the example that I previously mentioned of the assembly line. This is similarly oriented to a variety of quantifiable dimensions such as optimizing the speed of the line, and decreasing the price of the finished product (Ritzer, 1983). General Motors received increased sales and ultimately increased profits from the employment of this system. Although his theory retained the faults of Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s; little workplace democracy and alienation, after 16 years of implementing Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s scientific approach, Ford skilfully managed to sell more than 10 million cars, proving the success of the system (The Saylor Foundation, 2005). The auto industry has continued to thrive into the 21st Century, making use of new efficiencies and cost reductions (The Saylor Foundation, 2005). There are many other organizations today where elements of Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ can be seen to be employed effectively. Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s system strived for rationality and maximum efficiency. A typical example of an organization employing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in its production is the fast food chain McDonalds. The McDonalds workerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s manual includes every step-by-step detail that the staff must follow, from the precise cooking times and temperature settings for all products and equipment, to that precise instruction that the Grill men must put hamburgers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"on the grill moving left to right, creating six rows of six patties eachà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Pri estly, 2005). Speed, convenience and standardization are set in place of any creation in cooking or variety in choice (Ritzer, 1983). Uniformity is complete in every McDonaldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s restaurant, meaning that no matter what country in the world you are in, each on is using the same standard method to prepare food, promote the staff, and clean the floors (Priestly, 2005). This scientific system of managing every aspect of working life in this fast food chain is what has given them the ability to efficiently supply standard food and service around world and lead them to become the biggest restaurant chain on Earth (Priestly, 2005). While there is no doubt that it is this scientifically managed system that has led to McDonaldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s worldwide triumph, the flaws of the system are still to be seen. George Ritzer introduces the idea of the irony of the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"irrationality of rationalityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ that is found in the workplace of McDonalds (Ritzer, 2 011). This means that what appears to be an extremely rational and efficient system, does in fact lead inefficiency, loss of control, and other irrationalities in the long run. Employeeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"McJobsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ are deemed dehumanizing, and provide little satisfaction or stability, and so it is no surprise that alienation, resentment and absenteeism are present (Ritzer, 2011). The fast-food industry have an enormous turnover rate of 300%, meaning that the average workers only lasts for approximately 4 months (Ritzer, 20011). This high turnover rate is of course inadmissible for any organization, as there is the increased costs of constantly hiring and training new staff. Also, the lack of workerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s skill required for their à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"McJobsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in inefficient for the organization. Managers could be obtaining much more from their workers for the money they are paid (Ritzer, 2011), but as they operate under a scientifi c system of management, there is no diversity or flexibility in the workerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s jobs, and therefore they can only do the exact tasks that they are asked to do in the exact manner that they are asked to do them. To conclude, I would say that it is evidently clear that Frederick Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was developed for a different time and a different place. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ seemed like a simple result to managerial problems at the end of the 19th Century, but modern organizations of the 21st, being much more complex, require more than a systematic approach to managers. There is no doubt that Taylorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s ideas have dramatically shaped modern methods of mass production and structural organization (The Saylor Foundation, 2005), and it is true that there are elements to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ which cooperate well today with some or ganizations management systems and continue to work effectively, however in general, our industry and society today have moved on and left à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"scientific managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in the past where it belongs. Bibliography Boddy, D. (ed.) 2005. Management: An Introduction, 3rd edition. Harlow, Pearson Education. Drucker, F. P. 1999. Knowledge-Worker Productivity: The Biggest Challenge. In Introduction to Organisation and Management, 3rd edition. (Quilliam J., ed.), Harlow, Pearson Education, pp. 247-262. Fulop, L. and Linstead, S. 1999. Management: A Critical Text. South Yarra, Macmillan Publishers Australia. Mintzberg, H. 1990. The Managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Job: Folklore and Fact. In Introduction to Organisation and Management, 3rd edition. (Quilliam J., ed.), Harlow, Pearson Education, pp. 53-68. Priestley, S. 2005. Scientific Management in 21st Century. Available online at: [Acces sed 31st January 2014]. Ritzer, G. 1983. The McDonaldization of Society. Journal of American Culture, 6(1), 100-107. Available online at: [Accessed 31st January 2014]. Ritzer, G. 2011. The McDonaldization of Society 6. California, SAGE Publications, pp. 141-160. Available online at: [Accessed 12th February 2014]. Taylor, W. F. 1911. The Fundamentals of Scientific Management. New York, Harper Brothers. Available online at: [Accessed 3rd January 2014]. Taylor, W. F. 1911. The Principles of Scientific Management: Part I. In Introduction to Organisation and Management, 3rd edition. (Quilliam J., ed.), Harlow, Pearson Education, pp. 32-51. The Saylor Foundation, 2005. Scientific Management Theory and the Ford Motor Company. Available online at: [Accessed February 7th 2014].

Monday, June 8, 2020

Gender Matters Why Achebe and Jung Chang Have Opposing Interpretations of Western Influence - Literature Essay Samples

Gender Matters: Why Achebe and Jung Chang Have Opposing Interpretations of Western Influence While neither Wild Swans nor Things Fall Apart was entirely positive or entirely negative toward the societal change brought about by imperialism and Western influence, imperialism was certainly more condemned in Things Fall Apart than in Wild Swans.[i] Okonkwo, the main character in Achebe’s novel based in an Igbo community in Africa, struggled to come to terms with the changes colonialism brought to his village. By detailing the lives of three generations of women in her family, Jung Chang, the author and narrator of Wild Swans, demonstrated the progress that Westernization introduced to patriarchal China. The two figures viewed imperialism differently because their pre-imperialism statuses were entirely dissimilar: Okonkwo’s life was happy and prosperous before Western intervention, whereas the narrator of Wild Swans and her ancestors were subjugated to harsh Japanese rule and an incredibly patriarchal society before the adaptation of Western ideology. For Okonkwo, i mperialism exchanged his freedom for European domination, while Western influence freed Jung Chung from the yoke of Japanese and male oppression. Okonkwo was very resistant to the new politics and religion of the European-based society because he placed a high value on his status and position in society before the European conquest. In the first fourteen chapters, nearly two-thirds of the novel, the narrator painted an image of what Okonkwo’s life was like in traditional Igbo society. The in-depth explanations about cultural practices, such as tribal rituals and ceremonies for the gods, introduced readers to the wonders and uniqueness of Igbo identity and culture to show what colonialism later destroyed. The narrator chose to retell stories of Okokwo’s wrestling successes and crop harvest miracles to exemplify the successes Okonkwo had achieved early in his life. Young Okonkwo, with his three lives and expansive farm, was seen by his village as â€Å"one of the greatest men of his time. Age was respected among his people, but achievement was revered.†[ii] Okonkwo’s personal achievements set him apar t from the other men in his village and allowed him to rise to a privileged position in his community. The introduction of Western imperialism in Okonkwo’s village dissolved the preexisting village identity and centuries of traditions, reversing Okonkwo’s social status. When Okonkwo returned from exile to find his village taken over by white Christian missionaries, he resisted the new politics and religion of the society for fear of losing his position, as he was zealously concerned with his image and societal perception of himself. Christianity, forced on the village by the missionaries, undermined the native religion around which political and societal structures were based. In a partial realization of Okonkwo’s biggest fear—being a failure like his father—Christianity upended the social system, privileging believers over Igbo traditionalists. Though the converted villagers at first refused to let the outcasts into their church, the outcasts â€Å"were the strongest adherents of the new faith† and even â€Å"brought the church into serious conflict with the clan a year later by killing the sacred python.†[iii] The importance of this event is twofold: by admitting the outcasts into the church, the missionaries removed the inequalities that existed between pre-colonial Igbo social classes, erasing the importance of Okonkwo’s successes. Additionally, the killing of the python is symbolic in that it signified the death of the traditional Igbo religion and the impending death of Igbo culture as a whole. In a way, this death also reflected Okonkwo’s death in the end of the book, as both the python and Okonkwo died in part because they no longer had any special worth in society. The title of the book is in and of itself a hint at the narrator’s view of imperialism in Africa. â€Å"Things Fall Apart† is a line in William Butler Yeats’ poem â€Å"The Second Coming†, written shortly after World War I, in which Yeats alluded to the collapse of tradition systems and the clash between ancient and modern world order. The loss of control poeticized in Yeats’ piece is mirrored in Okonkwo’s experiences; in his early life, he thrived by maintaining meticulous control over his farm and his family. When the white men arrived, they â€Å"put a knife on the things that held [the village] together and [the village] has fallen apart.†[iv] The Westerners and their religion are the superior force that Yeats predicts will destroy tradition and ancient cultures, and they also destroy Okonkwo’s reputation and, ultimately, his life. For Jung Chang and her female ancestors in Wild Swans, with the influx of Western influence and ideology came liberation from female oppression and emperor-style rule. Though modernization certainly did improve the role of women in society, the greatest transformation for women came under Communist rule. As is shown in the beginning of the novel, women in the late 1800s and early 1900s were treated as secondary citizens in China. Women were seen as so inferior to men that the authors great-grandmother wasnt even given a name; she was simply called Number Two Girl. Chinese tradition required that women be subservient to men, their primary responsibility being taking care of the house and serving their husband and his family. The authors grandmother, whose greatest asset were her bound feet not her intelligence or her talents was essentially treated as property; her father practically sold her off to a general who used her only for pleasure. Even after World War II freed the nativ e Manchurians from Japanese rule, the author’s mother still resented the â€Å"powerlessness of women, the barbarity of age-old customs.†[v] Women were still seen as inferior to men and as property, as they were often sold or trafficked to rich men. Because of this, the idea of basic gender equality promised by the Communist party was extremely appealing. The Communist system also appealed to Jung Chang’s mother because it called for a radical change in the Chinese social structure. Industrialization and modernization created a new class, the lower class workers, who were in search of a political ideology that supported them instead of the elites. It also brought about new definitions of the state—citizens wanted a responsive nation-state that prioritized the will and needs of the people. Jung Chang’s mother witnesses first hand how disadvantaged the lower classes were in China under the emperor, as she recalled being â€Å"appalled by the casual extravagance of the Kuomintang elite while people were starving to death in the streets.†[vi] The economic inequality was just one of many factors that caused the Chinese government to lose legitimacy—another would be the Opium Wars triggered by Western imperialism—but it is one strong example of how a weak Chinese society was the perfect bree ding ground for Western Communist ideology. The evaluation in Wild Swans on the benefits of Communist rule was mixed; initially, this governmental system, developed in Europe, proved to be a great solution for China’s struggling economy and social problems. Immediately after the Communists seized control of Jinzhou, they â€Å"issued relief grain, salt, and coal to the destitute. The Kuomintang had never done anything like this, and people were hugely impressed.†[vii] Whereas Okonkwo saw Western values as detrimental to well-functioning and culturally important Igbo traditions, the Chinese quality of life was much improved for the average working-class citizen. The Party also established the Women’s Federation, which â€Å"supervised the freeing of concubines and shutting down brothels, organized women to make shoes for the army, organized their education and their employment, [and] informed them of their rights.†[viii] For Jung Chang’s mother, the ability to choose whom she wanted to mar ry, to not only have but also invoke her rights, and to work for the Communist party signified a monumental step in women’s freedoms. Of course, once Mao’s dictatorial rule intensified, the public became disillusioned toward communism. However, modernization and the spread of Western ideology were initially heralded by Jung Chang’s family for liberating women from the chains of the patriarchy. Because the pre-colonial conditions in Okonkwo’s village were much better than those in pre-revolutionary China, it makes sense that Okonkwo resented the shift away from traditions, while Jung Chang and her ancestors embraced the change. Another important factor that likely shaped each individual’s response to Western influence was his or her gender. As a respected leader in a male-dominated society, Okonkwo had much more to lose from colonialism and societal transformations than Jung Chang and her ancestors did, as they were among the lowliest class of people in China, being both female and under the harsh Japanese occupation. Had Okonkwo been a woman, Achebe’s novel might have played out much differently; the same can be said for the women in Wild Swans. Because of this, and because the Western imperialism was much more prevalent and dominating in Africa, it is impossible to equate and adequately compare the two experiences. Ultimately, Achebe wrote a strong critique of colonialism that aimed to capture the flourishing side of African culture, while Jung Chang authored a familial biography and autobiography that shed light on the female struggle in pre-revolutionary China and the progress that Communism brought to women. Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1992. Chang, Jung. Wild Swans. London: Harper Collins Publishers. 2003. [i] For the purpose of this paper, it is important to note that â€Å"imperialism† will not be used to refer to Japanese rule in Manchuria, but rather on western influence and ideological exchange with China. [ii] Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992), 5. [iii] Ibid, 138. [iv] Ibid, 152. [v] Jung Chang, Wild Swans, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 2003), 91. [vi] Ibid, 98. [vii] Ibid, 113. [viii] Ibid, 129.